Culture/ Literature/ History


 Name: Ethiopia

  • Capital City: Addis Ababa (3,384,569 pop.) (4,567,857 metro)
  • Ethiopia Population: 93,877,025 (2013 est.)
  • World Populations (all countries)
  • Currency: Birr (ETB)
  • Ethnicity: Oromo 34.5%, Amara 26.9%, Somalie 6.2%, Tigraway 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Guragie 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Affar 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, other 11.3%
  • GDP total: $103.1 billion (2012 est.)
  • GDP per capita: $1,200 (2012 est.)
  • Land Sizes
  • Language: Amarigna (Amharic) (official), Oromigna (official regional), Tigrigna (official regional), Somaligna , Guaragigna , Sidamigna , Hadiyigna, other
  • Largest Cities: (by population) Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa, Mek’ele, Nazret
  • Name: From the latin Aethiopia, meaning, “Land of the Blacks.”
  • National Day: May 28
  • Religion: Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.6%, traditional 2.6%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.7%



  • (200,000 years ago) Homo sapiens emerged out of Ethiopia
  • (6000 BC) Agriculture is developed leading to an age of settlement in the region
  • (600 BC) The Kingdom of D’mt is established in northern Ethiopia, and becomes a mecca of trade in ivory, gold, silver, and slaves to Arab merchants
  • (500 BC) The Kingdom of Aksum is formed
  • (300 BC) Trade route courses are turned east rather than west to gain easier access to coastal ports; the Kingdom of D’mt is absorbed into small city-states due to the decline in trade, and eventually overtaken by the Kingdom of Aksum
  • (2nd century BC) Sabaean peoples arrived from Yemen and joined the Kingdom of Aksum

100 AD – 900 AD

  • (2nd century AD) Aksum flourished as a regional trading power
  • (341 AD) Coptic Christianity is introduced to the Aksum Empire by Frumentius, from Egypt
  • (500) The Aksum Empire boundaries are extended across the Red Sea to Yemen
  • (900) The Aksum Empire is overthrown by the Zagwe Dynasty


  • (1508) Portuguese traders made contact with Ethiopian Emperor Lebna Dengei, and assisted with aid during the Ethiopian-Adal War
  • (1531) Ethiopia is invaded by Muslim leader Ahmad Gran
  • (1543) Ahmad Gran is killed at the Battle of Wayna Daga; the Ethiopian Emperor struggled to regain control, however under Gran’s ten year occupation thousands of citizens had converted to Islam
  • (1557) Neighboring regions are conquered by the Ottoman Empire limiting Ethiopia’s access to the rest of the world.

1600s – 1700s

  • (1624) Years of revolt and unrest followed Emperor Susenyos’ conversion to Roman Catholicism
  • (1632) The state religion of Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity is reinstated, and Jesuit missionaries are expelled along with other Europeans
  • (1755-1855) Ethiopia entered an age of isolation, referred to as the Zemene Mesafint (“Age of Princes”)


  • (1855) Ethiopia is united and the power of the Emperor is restored under the reign of Tewodros II
  • (1888-1892) The Great Ethiopian Famine claimed the lives of a third of the population
  • (1889) A friendship treaty known as the ‘Treaty of Wichale’ between Ethiopia and Italy is signed; Italy would recognize Ethiopia’s sovereignty in order to obtain control of an area north of Ethiopia
  • (1889) Addis Ababa is declared the capital of Ethiopia
  • (1895) Ethiopia is invaded by Italy following an attempt by the latter to expand their territorial claims
  • (1896) Italian forces are defeated by Ethiopians during the battle of Adwa


  • (1923) Ethiopia is granted membership to the League of Nations
  • (1931) A written constitution is drafted and subsequently adopted
  • (1935) Italy invaded Ethiopia claiming a border infraction, and ill-equipped to defend themselves, Ethiopia is merged into Italy’s East African colony
  • (1936) Addis Ababa is captured by Italy, and the Italian king is declared Emperor of Ethiopia
  • (1941) Italy is defeated, with the aid of British troops, and the Ethiopia’s independence is restored
  • (1942) A proclamation is issued abolishing slavery
  • (1962) Eritrea is annexed by Emperor Haile Selassie, and is made an Ethiopian province
  • (1963) The Organization of African Unity (OAU) is formed
  • (1974) Food shortages, border wars, and a discontented middle class sparked demonstrations; Haile Selassie was deposed of in a military coup
  • (1977) Ethiopia’s Ogaden region is invaded by Somalia
  • (1984) Ethiopia devastated by widespread famine, 1 million reported dead
  • (1987) Mengistu Haile Mariam is elected president under a new constitution and one-party system
  • (1991) Addis Ababa is captured by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front forcing Mengistu to flee the country
  • (1994) A new constitution is adopted leading to Ethiopia’s first multiparty election
  • (1995) Negasso Gidada is elected president; Meles Zenawi is appointed Prime Minister
  • (1999) Ethiopian-Eritrean erupted following border disputes


  • (2000) A ceasefire agreement is signed with Eritrea ending the border war
  • (2002) Ethiopia and Eritrea reached a new common border agreement, with the town of Badme remaining a disputed territory
  • (2005) Disputed multiparty elections lead to deadly protests
  • (2006) Several parties banned together to form an opposition alliance, the Alliance for Freedom and Democracy
  • (2006) Addis Ababa is bombed several times with no party claiming responsibility
  • (2006) Widespread flooding leaves thousands homeless and several hundred dead in its wake
  • (2006) Tensions with Somalia flared
  • (2006) Ethiopian troops entered Somalia to forcefully remove rebel Islamists
  • (2007) Ethiopian troops withdrawal from Somalia after a peace agreement is signed with the rebels
  • (2012) Prime Minister Meles Zenawi passed away in Brussels where he was being treated for an unspecified illness; Hailemariam Desalegn was appointed prime minister
  • (2013) Ethiopia and Egypt agreed to discuss plans for a dam on the Blue Nile.



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